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Hinge of History Thread Part 3

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#21 Valin

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Posted 20 October 2016 - 01:56 PM



#22 Valin

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Posted 26 October 2016 - 09:14 AM



#23 Valin

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Posted 04 December 2016 - 09:07 AM

Very Cool!  cool.png
 
Could Dark Matter Be Powering The EMdrive?
Ethan Siegel
Nov. 30 2016

For every action, there's an equal and opposite reaction. This formulation of Newton's third law has two very important modern consequences: one, that there's a physical quantity that's always conserved in the Universe (momentum), and two, that the laws of physics are the same irrespective of your position in space. This has a huge slew of implications, including that if you want to power a device to change its motion, you need to push against something. This could be exhaust from a rocket, tires pushing against a road, train wheels on a rail-line or even photons reflected off a sail. The one thing that's forbidden is a reactionless drive: an action without a reaction. That's exactly what the EMdrive -- the "impossible" space engine just verified by a NASA test -- claims to be. If it truly works as advertised, it violates the laws of physics. But there's a possible loophole: perhaps there is a reaction, and we just don't detect it. Perhaps the reaction occurs, but it's occurring due to dark matter.

According to the standard model of cosmology, the majority of the matter in the Universe isn't in the form of atoms, or of any known particle. Rather, the overwhelming majority of mass -- by a 5-to-1 margin -- is in the form of dark matter. Dark matter doesn't collide, annihilate or otherwise interact with either itself or other, normal matter under any known circumstances, but rather interacts only gravitationally. After 13.8 billion years like this, it forms a vast, diffuse cosmic network of gravitational structure, and forms huge spherical haloes more than a million light years in diameter that contain galaxies like our own. This means, all told, that dark matter permeates every square centimeter of our galaxy, including existing -- albeit in small densities -- inside every object on Earth, including our own bodies.

 

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#24 Valin

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Posted 10 January 2017 - 09:53 AM

Bear In Mind This Is Thomas L. Friedman...Uber Left.......Still

 

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations

 

 

H/T Tucker Carlson

 



#25 Valin

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Posted 11 February 2017 - 08:28 AM

Printed human body parts could soon be available for transplant
How to build organs from scratch

Jan 28th 2017

 

EVERY year about 120,000 organs, mostly kidneys, are transplanted from one human being to another. Sometimes the donor is a living volunteer. Usually, though, he or she is the victim of an accident, stroke, heart attack or similar sudden event that has terminated the life of an otherwise healthy individual. But a lack of suitable donors, particularly as cars get safer and first-aid becomes more effective, means the supply of such organs is limited. Many people therefore die waiting for a transplant. That has led researchers to study the question of how to build organs from scratch.

 

One promising approach is to print them. Lots of things are made these days by three-dimensional printing, and there seems no reason why body parts should not be among them. As yet, such “bioprinting” remains largely experimental. But bioprinted tissue is already being sold for drug testing, and the first transplantable tissues are expected to be ready for use in a few years’ time.

 

Just press “print”

 

Bioprinting originated in the early 2000s, when it was discovered that living cells could be sprayed through the nozzles of inkjet printers without damaging them. Today, using multiple print heads to squirt out different cell types, along with polymers that help keep the structure in shape, it is possible to deposit layer upon layer of cells that will bind together and grow into living, functional tissue. Researchers in various places are tinkering with kidney and liver tissue, skin, bones and cartilage, as well as the networks of blood vessels needed to keep body parts alive. They have implanted printed ears, bones and muscles into animals, and watched these integrate properly with their hosts. Last year a group at Northwestern University, in Chicago, even printed working prosthetic ovaries for mice. The recipients were able to conceive and give birth with the aid of these artificial organs.

 

(Snip)



#26 Valin

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Posted 11 February 2017 - 08:32 AM

Printed human body parts could soon be available for transplant
How to build organs from scratch
Jan 28th 2017

 
 
OTHO............................................
 
Hybrid zoo: Introducing pig–human embryos and a rat–mouse
[io]Chimaeras could pave the way for growing human organs in other animals.[/i]
Sara Reardon
26 January 2017
 

Scientists have published the first peer-reviewed account of creating pig–human hybrid fetuses, a step toward growing animals with organs that are suitable for transplantation into humans.

 

The team that made these chimaeras also reports the creation of mouse–rat and human–cow hybrids on 26 January in Cellhttp://dx.doi.org/10...ell.2016.12.036 (2017).">1. Such modified animals could provide researchers with new models for testing drugs and understanding early human development.

 

To create chimaeras, scientists generally inject pluripotent stem cells — which can become any type of organ — from one species into the early embryo of a second species. In theory, the foreign cells should differentiate and spread throughout the body, but in practice, producing viable hybrid embryos has proven difficult.

 

To get around this, a team led by developmental biologist Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, used CRISPR gene-editing technology to create mouse embryos without the genes that cause organs to form. The scientists then injected rat stem cells into the mouse embryos and implanted the embryos into a mouse’s uterus.

 

(Snip)



#27 Valin

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Posted 13 February 2017 - 06:09 AM



#28 Valin

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Posted 22 February 2017 - 03:01 PM

The ethical quandaries of genetic editing
Jazz Shaw
Feb 22 2017

I’ve been doing a lot of reading over the last year on the subject of genetic engineering, particularly in light of the advent of CRISPR technology. If you haven’t heard of that yet you might want to look into it. It’s an amazing scientific advancement which allows scientists to go in and conduct some surgical stitching of the genetic code which defines the physical makeup of all living things. While that sounds tremendously exciting, it’s also pretty darned frightening when you stop to think about it. Potential advancements in medical technology aside, there are also a number of ethical and even religious questions which become immediately tangled up in the debate. Christine Emba published an excellent article on the subject at the Washington Post this week.
 
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Before diving into that quagmire it’s worth recognizing some of the huge challenges facing us just in the nuts and bolts of the science of genetic engineering. As I said, I read a number of pieces, both pro and con, which examine this field of science, as well as sitting through numerous interviews with both scientists and ethicists who are debating it currently. We have indeed reached the point where we can map the entire human genome and that is an incredible achievement which deserves recognition. Having done so, you might expect that we are well on the path toward eliminating all of our problems, right? I mean, having this map we can just go in and turn off whichever gene causes cancer and eliminate one of the great plagues which is crushing humanity.

 

Not so fast. While we’ve come a long way a short period of time I’ve still heard scientists describing the situation as being akin to handing a pile of electrical components and a schematic to a chimpanzee. We have the map in our hands but the truth is we are still light years away from being able to use it to quickly arrive at a definitive destination. Returning to the example of curing cancer, you might be tempted to think that somewhere in that gigantic DNA string there is one gene causing the problems which we could simply turn off. If only it were that simple. It turns out that almost nothing that happens in the human body is the responsibility of one single gene. Multiple genes work in combination and produce all sorts of results, frequently unexpected. Even if you could locate the precise combination of genes causing breast cancer and switch them off, you still don’t know what else those jeans might’ve been doing. There has probably never been a better example of the dangers inherent in the law of unintended consequences.

 

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Everything You Need to Know About CRISPR, the New Tool that Edits DNA







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